10 comandos de Strace para solucionar problemas y depurar procesos de Linux


strace es una poderosa herramienta de línea de comandos para la depuración y solución de problemas en sistemas operativos similares a Unix, como Linux. Captura y registra todas las llamadas al sistema realizadas por un proceso y las señales recibidas por el proceso.

Muestra el nombre de cada llamada del sistema junto con sus argumentos incluidos entre paréntesis y su valor de retorno a error estándar; Opcionalmente, también puede redirigirlo a un archivo.

En este artículo, explicaremos 10 ejemplos de comandos de strace para solucionar problemas y depurar programas y procesos en un sistema Linux.

Cómo instalar la herramienta de monitoreo de procesos de Strace en Linux

Si strace no está preinstalado en su sistema Linux, ejecute el comando apropiado a continuación para su distribución, para instalarlo.

$ sudo apt install strace	#Debian/Ubuntu 
# yum install strace		#RHEL/CentOS
# dnf install strace		#Fedora 22+

En caso de que un programa se bloquee o se comporte de una manera no esperada, puede pasar por sus llamadas de sistemas para obtener una pista de lo que sucedió exactamente durante su ejecución. Como veremos más adelante, las llamadas al sistema se pueden clasificar en diferentes eventos: aquellos relacionados con la administración de procesos, aquellos que toman un archivo como un argumento, aquellos que involucran redes, mapeo de memoria, señales, IPC y también llamadas relacionadas al descriptor de archivos.

Puede ejecutar un programa/comando con strace o pasarle un PID usando la opción -p como se muestra en los siguientes ejemplos.

1. Rastrear las llamadas del sistema de comandos de Linux

Simplemente puede ejecutar un comando con strace de esta manera, aquí estamos rastreando todas las llamadas al sistema realizadas por el comando df.

$ strace df -h

execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "7ELF
$ strace df -h
execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f7310000
...
$ strace df -h
execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f7310000
...
$ strace df -h
execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f7310000
...
$ strace df -h
execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f7310000
...
$ strace df -h
execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f7310000
...
$ strace df -h
execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f7310000
...
$ strace df -h
execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f7310000
...
$ strace df -h
execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f7310000
...
$ strace df -h
execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f7310000
...
$ strace df -h
execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f7310000
...
$ strace df -h
execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f7310000
...
$ strace df -h
execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f7310000
...
$ strace df -h
execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f7310000
...
$ strace df -h
execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f7310000
...
$ strace df -h
execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f7310000
...
$ strace df -h
execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f7310000
...
$ strace df -h
execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f7310000
...
$ strace df -h
execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 50 vars */]) = 0
brk(NULL)                               = 0x136e000
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f82f78fd000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78d8000
close(3)                                = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f7310000
...

Desde la salida anterior, puede ver varios tipos de llamadas al sistema realizadas por df command , por ejemplo.

open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3

Dónde:

  • open – is the type of system call
  • (“/etc/ld.so.cache”, O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) – system call argument
  • 3 – system call return value

A continuación se muestra una salida de muestra que muestra las llamadas del sistema de escritura, que muestra la salida df command en la pantalla.

mmap(NULL, 26258, PROT_READ, MAP_SHARED, 3, 0) = 0x7f82f78f5000
close(3)                                = 0
fstat(1, {st_mode=S_IFCHR|0620, st_rdev=makedev(136, 1), ...}) = 0
write(1, "Filesystem      Size  Used Avail"..., 49Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
) = 49
write(1, "udev            3.9G     0  3.9G"..., 43udev            3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /dev
) = 43
write(1, "tmpfs           788M  9.6M  779M"..., 43tmpfs           788M  9.6M  779M   2% /run
) = 43
write(1, "/dev/sda10      324G  252G   56G"..., 40/dev/sda10      324G  252G   56G  82% /
) = 40
write(1, "tmpfs           3.9G  104M  3.8G"..., 47tmpfs           3.9G  104M  3.8G   3% /dev/shm
) = 47
write(1, "tmpfs           5.0M  4.0K  5.0M"..., 48tmpfs           5.0M  4.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
) = 48
write(1, "tmpfs           3.9G     0  3.9G"..., 53tmpfs           3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
) = 53
write(1, "cgmfs           100K     0  100K"..., 56cgmfs           100K     0  100K   0% /run/cgmanager/fs
) = 56
write(1, "tmpfs           788M   36K  788M"..., 53tmpfs           788M   36K  788M   1% /run/user/1000
) = 53
close(1)                                = 0
close(2)                                = 0
exit_group(0)                           = ?
+++ exited with 0 +++

2. Rastrear el proceso de Linux PID

Si ya se está ejecutando un proceso, puede rastrearlo simplemente pasando su PID de la siguiente manera; Esto llenará su pantalla con una salida continua que muestra que el proceso realiza las llamadas al sistema. Para finalizar, presione [Ctrl + C] .

$ sudo strace -p 3569

strace: Process 3569 attached
restart_syscall(<... resuming interrupted poll ...>) = 1
recvmsg(4, {msg_name(0)=NULL, msg_iov(1)=[{"U0!70
$ sudo strace -p 3569
strace: Process 3569 attached
restart_syscall(<... resuming interrupted poll ...>) = 1
recvmsg(4, {msg_name(0)=NULL, msg_iov(1)=[{"U\2\24\300!\247\330\0\3\24\4\0\20\0\0\0\0\0\0\24\24\24\24\24\0\0\3\37%\2\0\0", 4096}], msg_controllen=0, msg_flags=0}, 0) = 32
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf870, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, -1) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 0 (Timeout)
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -p 3569
strace: Process 3569 attached
restart_syscall(<... resuming interrupted poll ...>) = 1
recvmsg(4, {msg_name(0)=NULL, msg_iov(1)=[{"U\2\24\300!\247\330\0\3\24\4\0\20\0\0\0\0\0\0\24\24\24\24\24\0\0\3\37%\2\0\0", 4096}], msg_controllen=0, msg_flags=0}, 0) = 32
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf870, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, -1) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 0 (Timeout)
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -p 3569
strace: Process 3569 attached
restart_syscall(<... resuming interrupted poll ...>) = 1
recvmsg(4, {msg_name(0)=NULL, msg_iov(1)=[{"U\2\24\300!\247\330\0\3\24\4\0\20\0\0\0\0\0\0\24\24\24\24\24\0\0\3\37%\2\0\0", 4096}], msg_controllen=0, msg_flags=0}, 0) = 32
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf870, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, -1) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 0 (Timeout)
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -p 3569
strace: Process 3569 attached
restart_syscall(<... resuming interrupted poll ...>) = 1
recvmsg(4, {msg_name(0)=NULL, msg_iov(1)=[{"U\2\24\300!\247\330\0\3\24\4\0\20\0\0\0\0\0\0\24\24\24\24\24\0\0\3\37%\2\0\0", 4096}], msg_controllen=0, msg_flags=0}, 0) = 32
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf870, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, -1) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 0 (Timeout)
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -p 3569
strace: Process 3569 attached
restart_syscall(<... resuming interrupted poll ...>) = 1
recvmsg(4, {msg_name(0)=NULL, msg_iov(1)=[{"U\2\24\300!\247\330\0\3\24\4\0\20\0\0\0\0\0\0\24\24\24\24\24\0\0\3\37%\2\0\0", 4096}], msg_controllen=0, msg_flags=0}, 0) = 32
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf870, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, -1) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 0 (Timeout)
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -p 3569
strace: Process 3569 attached
restart_syscall(<... resuming interrupted poll ...>) = 1
recvmsg(4, {msg_name(0)=NULL, msg_iov(1)=[{"U\2\24\300!\247\330\0\3\24\4\0\20\0\0\0\0\0\0\24\24\24\24\24\0\0\3\37%\2\0\0", 4096}], msg_controllen=0, msg_flags=0}, 0) = 32
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf870, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, -1) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 0 (Timeout)
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -p 3569
strace: Process 3569 attached
restart_syscall(<... resuming interrupted poll ...>) = 1
recvmsg(4, {msg_name(0)=NULL, msg_iov(1)=[{"U\2\24\300!\247\330\0\3\24\4\0\20\0\0\0\0\0\0\24\24\24\24\24\0\0\3\37%\2\0\0", 4096}], msg_controllen=0, msg_flags=0}, 0) = 32
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf870, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, -1) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 0 (Timeout)
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -p 3569
strace: Process 3569 attached
restart_syscall(<... resuming interrupted poll ...>) = 1
recvmsg(4, {msg_name(0)=NULL, msg_iov(1)=[{"U\2\24\300!\247\330\0\3\24\4\0\20\0\0\0\0\0\0\24\24\24\24\24\0\0\3\37%\2\0\0", 4096}], msg_controllen=0, msg_flags=0}, 0) = 32
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf870, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, -1) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 0 (Timeout)
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -p 3569
strace: Process 3569 attached
restart_syscall(<... resuming interrupted poll ...>) = 1
recvmsg(4, {msg_name(0)=NULL, msg_iov(1)=[{"U\2\24\300!\247\330\0\3\24\4\0\20\0\0\0\0\0\0\24\24\24\24\24\0\0\3\37%\2\0\0", 4096}], msg_controllen=0, msg_flags=0}, 0) = 32
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf870, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, -1) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 0 (Timeout)
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -p 3569
strace: Process 3569 attached
restart_syscall(<... resuming interrupted poll ...>) = 1
recvmsg(4, {msg_name(0)=NULL, msg_iov(1)=[{"U\2\24\300!\247\330\0\3\24\4\0\20\0\0\0\0\0\0\24\24\24\24\24\0\0\3\37%\2\0\0", 4096}], msg_controllen=0, msg_flags=0}, 0) = 32
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf870, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, -1) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 0 (Timeout)
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -p 3569
strace: Process 3569 attached
restart_syscall(<... resuming interrupted poll ...>) = 1
recvmsg(4, {msg_name(0)=NULL, msg_iov(1)=[{"U\2\24\300!\247\330\0\3\24\4\0\20\0\0\0\0\0\0\24\24\24\24\24\0\0\3\37%\2\0\0", 4096}], msg_controllen=0, msg_flags=0}, 0) = 32
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf870, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, -1) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 0 (Timeout)
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -p 3569
strace: Process 3569 attached
restart_syscall(<... resuming interrupted poll ...>) = 1
recvmsg(4, {msg_name(0)=NULL, msg_iov(1)=[{"U\2\24\300!\247\330\0\3\24\4\0\20\0\0\0\0\0\0\24\24\24\24\24\0\0\3\37%\2\0\0", 4096}], msg_controllen=0, msg_flags=0}, 0) = 32
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf870, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, -1) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 1 ([{fd=31, revents=POLLIN}])
read(31, "\372", 1)                     = 1
recvmsg(4, 0x7ffee4dbf850, 0)           = -1 EAGAIN (Resource temporarily unavailable)
poll([{fd=3, events=POLLIN}, {fd=4, events=POLLIN}, {fd=5, events=POLLIN}, {fd=10, events=POLLIN}, {fd=30, events=POLLIN}, {fd=31, events=POLLIN}], 6, 0) = 0 (Timeout)
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa20000, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
mprotect(0x207faa21000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0
...

3. Obtenga un resumen del proceso de Linux

Utilizando el indicador -c , puede generar un informe de tiempo total, llamadas y errores para cada llamada al sistema, de la siguiente manera.

$ sudo strace -c -p 3569

strace: Process 3569 attached

^Cstrace: Process 3569 detached
% time     seconds  usecs/call     calls    errors syscall
------ ----------- ----------- --------- --------- ----------------
 99.73    0.016000           8      1971           poll
  0.16    0.000025           0       509        75 futex
  0.06    0.000010           0      1985      1966 recvmsg
  0.06    0.000009           0      2336           mprotect
  0.00    0.000000           0       478           read
  0.00    0.000000           0        13           write
  0.00    0.000000           0        29           mmap
  0.00    0.000000           0         9           munmap
  0.00    0.000000           0        18           writev
  0.00    0.000000           0       351           madvise
  0.00    0.000000           0         1           restart_syscall
------ ----------- ----------- --------- --------- ----------------
100.00    0.016044                  7700      2041 total

4. Puntero de instrucción de impresión durante la llamada al sistema

La opción -i muestra el puntero de instrucción en el momento de cada llamada al sistema realizada por el programa.

$ sudo strace -i df -h

[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "7ELF
$ sudo strace -i df -h
[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9c716000
[00007faf9cafb517] mprotect(0x7faf9c8d6000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -i df -h
[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9c716000
[00007faf9cafb517] mprotect(0x7faf9c8d6000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -i df -h
[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9c716000
[00007faf9cafb517] mprotect(0x7faf9c8d6000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -i df -h
[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9c716000
[00007faf9cafb517] mprotect(0x7faf9c8d6000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -i df -h
[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9c716000
[00007faf9cafb517] mprotect(0x7faf9c8d6000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -i df -h
[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9c716000
[00007faf9cafb517] mprotect(0x7faf9c8d6000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -i df -h
[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9c716000
[00007faf9cafb517] mprotect(0x7faf9c8d6000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -i df -h
[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9c716000
[00007faf9cafb517] mprotect(0x7faf9c8d6000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -i df -h
[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9c716000
[00007faf9cafb517] mprotect(0x7faf9c8d6000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -i df -h
[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9c716000
[00007faf9cafb517] mprotect(0x7faf9c8d6000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -i df -h
[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9c716000
[00007faf9cafb517] mprotect(0x7faf9c8d6000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -i df -h
[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9c716000
[00007faf9cafb517] mprotect(0x7faf9c8d6000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -i df -h
[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9c716000
[00007faf9cafb517] mprotect(0x7faf9c8d6000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -i df -h
[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9c716000
[00007faf9cafb517] mprotect(0x7faf9c8d6000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -i df -h
[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9c716000
[00007faf9cafb517] mprotect(0x7faf9c8d6000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -i df -h
[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9c716000
[00007faf9cafb517] mprotect(0x7faf9c8d6000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -i df -h
[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9c716000
[00007faf9cafb517] mprotect(0x7faf9c8d6000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -i df -h
[00007f0d7534c777] execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
[00007faf9cafa4b9] brk(NULL)            = 0x12f0000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7faf9cd03000
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9ccde000
[00007faf9cafb427] close(3)             = 0
[00007faf9cafb387] access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
[00007faf9cafb327] open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
[00007faf9cafb347] read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
[00007faf9cafb2b4] fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
[00007faf9cafb47a] mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7faf9c716000
[00007faf9cafb517] mprotect(0x7faf9c8d6000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...

5. Mostrar la hora del día para cada línea de salida de seguimiento

También puede imprimir la hora del día para cada línea en la salida de rastreo, pasando el indicador -t .

$ sudo strace -t df -h

15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "7ELF
$ sudo strace -t df -h
15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7ebec000
15:19:25 mprotect(0x7f8c7edac000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -t df -h
15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7ebec000
15:19:25 mprotect(0x7f8c7edac000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -t df -h
15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7ebec000
15:19:25 mprotect(0x7f8c7edac000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -t df -h
15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7ebec000
15:19:25 mprotect(0x7f8c7edac000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -t df -h
15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7ebec000
15:19:25 mprotect(0x7f8c7edac000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -t df -h
15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7ebec000
15:19:25 mprotect(0x7f8c7edac000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -t df -h
15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7ebec000
15:19:25 mprotect(0x7f8c7edac000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -t df -h
15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7ebec000
15:19:25 mprotect(0x7f8c7edac000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -t df -h
15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7ebec000
15:19:25 mprotect(0x7f8c7edac000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -t df -h
15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7ebec000
15:19:25 mprotect(0x7f8c7edac000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -t df -h
15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7ebec000
15:19:25 mprotect(0x7f8c7edac000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -t df -h
15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7ebec000
15:19:25 mprotect(0x7f8c7edac000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -t df -h
15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7ebec000
15:19:25 mprotect(0x7f8c7edac000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -t df -h
15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7ebec000
15:19:25 mprotect(0x7f8c7edac000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -t df -h
15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7ebec000
15:19:25 mprotect(0x7f8c7edac000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -t df -h
15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7ebec000
15:19:25 mprotect(0x7f8c7edac000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -t df -h
15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7ebec000
15:19:25 mprotect(0x7f8c7edac000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...
$ sudo strace -t df -h
15:19:25 execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
15:19:25 brk(NULL)                      = 0x234c000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1d9000
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7f1b4000
15:19:25 close(3)                       = 0
15:19:25 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
15:19:25 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
15:19:25 read(3, "\177ELF\2\1\1\3\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\3\0>\0\1\0\0\0P\t\2\0\0\0\0\0"..., 832) = 832
15:19:25 fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1868984, ...}) = 0
15:19:25 mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7f8c7ebec000
15:19:25 mprotect(0x7f8c7edac000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
...

6. Tiempo de comando de impresión empleado en llamadas al sistema

Para mostrar la diferencia horaria entre el inicio y el final de cada llamada al sistema realizada por un programa, use la opción -T .

$ sudo strace -T df -h

execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0 <0.000287>
brk(NULL)                               = 0xeca000 <0.000035>
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory) <0.000028>
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7f9aff2b1000 <0.000020>
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory) <0.000019>
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 <0.000022>
fstat(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=147662, ...}) = 0 <0.000015>
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7f9aff28c000 <0.000019>
close(3)                                = 0 <0.000014>
...

7. Rastrear solo llamadas específicas al sistema

En el siguiente comando, trace = write se conoce como una expresión calificada, donde trace es un calificador (otros incluyen señal, abreviatura, verbosa, en bruto, sin formato, lectura o escritura) . Aquí, escribir es el valor del calificador.

El siguiente comando muestra las llamadas del sistema para imprimir la salida de df en la salida estándar.

$ sudo strace -e trace=write df -h

write(1, "Filesystem      Size  Used Avail"..., 49Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
) = 49
write(1, "udev            3.9G     0  3.9G"..., 43udev            3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /dev
) = 43
write(1, "tmpfs           788M  9.6M  779M"..., 43tmpfs           788M  9.6M  779M   2% /run
) = 43
write(1, "/dev/sda10      324G  252G   56G"..., 40/dev/sda10      324G  252G   56G  82% /
) = 40
write(1, "tmpfs           3.9G  104M  3.8G"..., 47tmpfs           3.9G  104M  3.8G   3% /dev/shm
) = 47
write(1, "tmpfs           5.0M  4.0K  5.0M"..., 48tmpfs           5.0M  4.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
) = 48
write(1, "tmpfs           3.9G     0  3.9G"..., 53tmpfs           3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
) = 53
write(1, "cgmfs           100K     0  100K"..., 56cgmfs           100K     0  100K   0% /run/cgmanager/fs
) = 56
write(1, "tmpfs           788M   28K  788M"..., 53tmpfs           788M   28K  788M   1% /run/user/1000
) = 53
+++ exited with 0 +++

Aquí hay algunos comandos adicionales acerca del calificador de rastreo.

$ sudo strace -e trace=open,close df -h
$ sudo strace -e trace=open,close,read,write df -h
$ sudo strace -e trace=all df -h	

8. Rastrear llamadas al sistema basadas en una determinada condición

Veamos cómo rastrear las llamadas al sistema relacionadas con una determinada clase de eventos. Este comando se puede utilizar para rastrear todas las llamadas del sistema que involucran la administración de procesos.

$ sudo strace -q -e trace=process df -h	

execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
arch_prctl(ARCH_SET_FS, 0x7fe2222ff700) = 0
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev            3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /dev
tmpfs           788M  9.6M  779M   2% /run
/dev/sda10      324G  252G   56G  82% /
tmpfs           3.9G  104M  3.8G   3% /dev/shm
tmpfs           5.0M  4.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
tmpfs           3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
cgmfs           100K     0  100K   0% /run/cgmanager/fs
tmpfs           788M   28K  788M   1% /run/user/1000
exit_group(0)                           = ?
+++ exited with 0 +++

A continuación, para rastrear todas las llamadas del sistema que toman un nombre de archivo como un argumento, ejecute este comando.

$ sudo strace -q  -e trace=file df -h

execve("/bin/df", ["df", "-h"], [/* 17 vars */]) = 0
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
open("/usr/lib/locale/locale-archive", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
open("/usr/share/locale/locale.alias", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3
...

Para rastrear todas las llamadas del sistema que involucran mapeo de memoria, escriba.

$ sudo strace -q -e trace=memory df -h	

brk(NULL)                               = 0x77a000
mmap(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7fe8f4658000
mmap(NULL, 147662, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7fe8f4633000
mmap(NULL, 3971488, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x7fe8f406b000
mprotect(0x7fe8f422b000, 2097152, PROT_NONE) = 0
mmap(0x7fe8f442b000, 24576, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_FIXED|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0x1c0000) = 0x7fe8f442b000
mmap(0x7fe8f4431000, 14752, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_FIXED|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7fe8f4431000
mmap(NULL, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7fe8f4632000
mmap(NULL, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7fe8f4631000
mmap(NULL, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x7fe8f4630000
mprotect(0x7fe8f442b000, 16384, PROT_READ) = 0
mprotect(0x616000, 4096, PROT_READ)     = 0
mprotect(0x7fe8f465a000, 4096, PROT_READ) = 0
munmap(0x7fe8f4633000, 147662)          = 0
mmap(NULL, 2981280, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7fe8f3d93000
brk(NULL)                               = 0x77a000
brk(0x79b000)                           = 0x79b000
mmap(NULL, 619, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x7fe8f4657000
mmap(NULL, 26258, PROT_READ, MAP_SHARED, 3, 0) = 0x7fe8f4650000
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev            3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /dev
tmpfs           788M  9.6M  779M   2% /run
/dev/sda10      324G  252G   56G  82% /
tmpfs           3.9G  104M  3.8G   3% /dev/shm
tmpfs           5.0M  4.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
tmpfs           3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
cgmfs           100K     0  100K   0% /run/cgmanager/fs
tmpfs           788M   28K  788M   1% /run/user/1000
+++ exited with 0 +++

Puede rastrear todas las llamadas del sistema relacionadas con la red y las señales.

$ sudo strace -e trace=network df -h
$ sudo strace -e trace=signal df -h

9. Redirigir la salida de rastreo al archivo

Para escribir los mensajes de seguimiento enviados a un error estándar en un archivo, use la opción -o . Esto significa que solo el resultado del comando se imprime en la pantalla como se muestra a continuación.

$ sudo strace -o df_debug.txt df -h

Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev            3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /dev
tmpfs           788M  9.6M  779M   2% /run
/dev/sda10      324G  252G   56G  82% /
tmpfs           3.9G  104M  3.8G   3% /dev/shm
tmpfs           5.0M  4.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
tmpfs           3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
cgmfs           100K     0  100K   0% /run/cgmanager/fs
tmpfs           788M   28K  788M   1% /run/user/1000

Para mirar a través del archivo, use el comando cat.

$ cat df_debug.txt 

10. Muestra algo de salida de depuración de Strace

Para mostrar la información de depuración de la herramienta strace, use la marca -d .

$ strace -d df -h

Para información adicional, vea la página de manual de strace.

$ man strace

También lea estos artículos relacionados útiles:

  1. 20 Command Line Tools to Monitor Linux Performance
  2. Sysdig – A Powerful System Monitoring and Troubleshooting Tool for Linux
  3. How to Trace Execution of Commands in Shell Script with Shell Tracing
  4. BCC – Dynamic Tracing Tools for Linux Performance Monitoring, Networking and More

En conclusión, strace es una herramienta extraordinaria para diagnosticar la causa o las fallas del programa: es una poderosa depuración y solución de problemas. Es prácticamente útil para administradores de sistemas, programadores y hackers con experiencia. Para compartir cualquier comentario sobre este artículo, utilice el formulario de comentarios a continuación.